Backend Developer Learning Path 2021
Want to become a Backend Web Developer in 2021? Being a fresher and not knowing what career to choose is something we all went through. But, if you have concluded to become a backend developer, we will help you to know the programming languages, tools and technologies that are often used for backend development. Please remember this roadmap is the extension of our previous blog on the backend developer roadmap and is here to help you identify more areas to learn.
So let’s get started!
Who is a Backend Developer?
Backend developers deal with the logical side of the application. Backend development refers to server-side development that centers on scripting, databases, and web application architecture. In simple terms, the backend developer handles behind-the-scenes activities that take place while performing a function on the website or application. It’s the backend developer’s responsibility to write code that communicates with databases or APIs, creating libraries, working on data architecture and business processes, and so on.
Backend development gives the foundation code to enable web apps to perform the actions users ask using the frontend and deliver the right outcome. But what are the technologies, tools, languages that you need to know about to become a backend developer? Let’s check that out!
Backend Web Developer RoadMap For 2021
Here’s the 2021 roadmap for the backend Web developer journey you have been waiting for. It consists of recommendations, alternate options, and learning as you go technologies and tools.
Skills A Backend Web Developer Need in 2021
With the 2021 roadmap mentioned above, you can clearly understand that backend development is a logical and technical side of the web app. So we are going to discuss technologies and tools that are essential to becoming a good backend developer.
1. Basic Internet, Operating System and Frontend Knowledge
Similar to frontend development, being a backend developer also requires learning the basics of the internet (like how it works, what is HTTP/HTTPS, working on browsers, DNS working, and what’s domain name and hosting).
Once done learning about the internet, you need to learn general information about operating systems, i.e., memory management, terminal usage, OS working, process management, threads and concurrency, basic terminal commands, I/O management, and basic concepts of networking.
2. Programming language
3. Version Control System
A version Control system is a tool that assists both frontend and backend developers to interact and handle changes done over time. It also gives information like what kind of changes are done and by whom. In short, a version control system amplifies the speed of the project by allowing collaboration between developers, removing errors possibilities, and even recovering the code in case of an accident.
For backend development, you can use the following version control systems.
In the context of a web application, a database is a brain that helps to make a web app dynamic. Whenever you search for a product or request logins, the database is responsible for storing data, accepting queries, fetching information and returning to the web app with the required outcome.
Backend developers either use relational or NoSQL databases. Some of them are as follows:
Besides learning about a few of the databases mentioned above, you also need to understand some basic concepts of databases like ORMs, ACID, N+1 Problem, Transactions, Data Normalization and Indexes.
Application Programming Interfaces or APIs is an intermediary between services that allows them to interact with each other. Backend developers use APIs to make connections among different applications or services to provide an enhanced user experience through the frontend. Some of the APIs you should know about are:
Caching is the method to store a copy of a given resource in a cache (temporary storage location) and provide the data quickly whenever requested. The core aim of caching is to enhance the performance of data retrieval while reducing the requirement of accessing the underlying storage layer that is slow to process.
Here is a list of caching techniques and tools you should be aware of.
Backend testing is the process to check the database or server-side of the web app. The purpose of backend testing is to determine the efficiency of the database layer while ensuring it is free from data corruption, deadlocks or data loss. Testing methods that are used by backend developers include:
8. Code Analysis Tools
Code analysis is a method for debugging and analyzing code to ensure it runs smoothly. You can refer to our previous blogs to learn about different methods and tools for analysis - Code Analysis Tools: Code’s Journey From Developers to Testers and Static Code Analysis Tools For Java To Provide Quality Measurements.
Some of the tools used for code analysis are:
9. Architectural Patterns
An architectural pattern is a reusable solution to the recurring problems while developing the software. A few most commonly used architectural patterns consist of:
10. Message Broker
A message broker is a software that allows systems, apps and services to interact with one another to exchange information. A message broker is a module that translates the formal messaging protocol of the server into the formal messaging protocol of the client (receiver). You can learn one of the given message brokers to use in your future project.
Containerization is the packaging of software code with all the necessary elements like frameworks, libraries and other dependencies, to make services isolated from each other in a container. Containerization is done by the backend developer to easily move or run a container, independent of its infrastructure or environment. One of the most used containers that you should learn is Docker.
12. Design Patterns
Design Patterns are elaborated solutions for a common set of problems that can occur during web app development. It offers a standardized approach for such recurring issues. Below is the list of different design patterns you should know about.
13. Authentication Method
Authentication methods are used to verify the identity of a user or device who wants to access resources, data or applications. The authentication phase provides a user identity to the security system. Some of the methods used by backend developers are:
WebHook or reverse API is a way where an app provides real-time information to other applications. Unlike APIs, webhooks don’t require a request that follows a response. Instead, webhooks just sends data when it is available without a request with custom callbacks. This main feature of the webhook makes it efficient for both users and providers.
The WebSocket API is an advanced technology that makes it possible to open a two-way interactive communication session between the user's browser and a server. With this API, you can send messages to a server and receive event-driven responses without having to poll the server for a reply. WebSocket is a continuous connection between a client and the server. It provides a full-duplex, bi-directional channel for communication that works over HTTP via TCP/IP socket connection. Simply put, it is a thin and lightweight layer over TCP that makes it suitable for utilizing subprotocols to lodge messages.
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Blog Coutesy: Dev.to